The gynoecium is the female reproductive structure of the Angiosperm flower. Early during the development of the Arabidopsis gynoecium, a set of incompletely characterized patterning cues specifies the positional identities of the medial and lateral gynoecial domains. Cells within the medial domain retain a high degree of meristematic potential and give rise to the ovules, the precursors of the seeds. Thus, the specification and development of the medial domain of the gynoecium are critical for female reproductive competence and for the agricultural productivity of many crop species. We study identity specification within the medial gynoecial and the gene regulatory networks required for the initiation of ovule primordia from the medial domain. I will highlight our efforts to uncover the regulatory hierarchies that support the development of the medial domain and that coordinate positional information with the processes of cell proliferation and cellular differentiation during gynoecial development.